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Who's at risk and why

Background papers: children :: Immunisations and vaccinations [Update in progress] :: Who's at risk and why

Protection provided by the cross-placental transfer of antibodies from mother to child is more effective against some infections (e.g. tetanus and measles) than for others (e.g. polio and whooping cough). This protection however is temporary — commonly for only a few weeks or months.[1] It is therefore important that all children start receiving vaccinations at the appropriate time. The current childhood vaccination schedule is shown below:

Age Vaccine Diseases protected against
2 months DTaP/IPV/Hib (Pediacel or Infanrix IPV Hib) Diptheria, tetanus, pertussis (Whooping cough), polio and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)
2 months PCV (Prevenar 13) Pneumococcal disease
2 months Rotavirus (Rotarix) Rotavirus
3 months DTaP/IPV/Hib (Pediacel or Infanrix IPV Hib) Diptheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)
3 months MenC (Menjugate or Neisvac C) Meningococcal group C disease (Men C)
3 months Rotavirus (Rotarix) Rotavirus
4 months DTaP/IPV/Hib (Pediacel or Infanrix IPV Hib) Diptheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)
4 months PCV (Prevenar 13) Pneumococcal disease
12 to 13 months Hib/MenC (Menitorix) Hib/MenC
12 to 13 months PCV (Prevenar 13) Pneumococcal disease
12 to 13 months MMR (Priorix or MMR VaxPRO) Measles, mumps and rubella (German measles)
2,3 and 4 years Flu nasal spray (Fluenz Tetra annual if Fluenz unsuitable, use inactivated flu vaccine) Influenza
3 years 4 months FTaP/IPV (Infanrix or Repevax) Diptheria, tetanus, pertussis and polio
3 years 4 months MMR (Priorix or MMR VaxPRO check first dose has been given) Measles, mumps and rubella (German measles)
12 to 13 years - girls only HPV (Garasil) Cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 (and genital warts caused by types 6 and 11)
Around 14 years Td/IPV (Revaxis) and check MMR status Tetanus, diptheria and polio
Around 14 years MenC (Meningtite, Menjugate or NeisVac-C) MenC
Table 1: Routine child vaccination schedule, 2014.[2]

Non-routine vaccinations are also offered to those at increased risk such as:
• Infants whose mothers have been detected to be hepatitis B positive via antenatal screening — these infants require Hepatitis B vaccination at birth, 1 month old, 2 months old and 12 months old. A preschool booster is also recommended.
• Infants who are more likely to come into contact with tuberculosis than the general population — these Infants are offered BCG vaccination soon after birth

Other vaccinations given to children and young people include:
• seasonal flu vaccination if in a clinical risk group
• hepatitis B vaccination if at increased risk of hepatitis B because of lifestyle, occupation or other factors e.g. a household contact of someone who is infected with hepatitis B
• travel vaccinations (generally not funded by the NHS although there are some exceptions)


References

[1]   Department of Health. Immunity and how vaccines work 2007;
[2]   PHE. The complete routine immunisation schedule 2015;